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O Incunábulo

Por bookess | Postado em Novidades | Em 09-09-2010

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O termo, oriundo da palavra latina incunabulum, berço, é empregado pelos bibliógrafos para designar qualquer obra impressa em qualquer lugar na época mais antiga ou no princípio da história da imprensa (…), mas, especificamente (…), a palavra aplicava-se às obras impressas na Europa no século XV – abrangendo todas as que ali saíram dos prelos antes de 1501 (McMURTRIE : 325). Ainda que de forma um tanto restrita e nem sempre exata, se dá o nome de incunábulo (berço, em alusão ao estado inicial da imprensa) ou paleotipo (do grego palaiós, antigo, e typos, modelo) a uma série de livros produzidos entre a data da invenção da tipografia e o ano de 1500. Diz-se que é de forma restritiva porque no ano de 1500 não ocorreu nada de especial que distinga os livros produzidos imediatamente antes dos realizados imediatamente depois, e nem sempre exata porque antes de 1500 em algumas tipografias foram impressos livros perfeitos em face da aplicação de uma imprensa industrializada, como sucedeu nas oficinas venezianas de Aldo Manuzio, que produziu obras que não representam o período inicial da tipografia, bem ao contrário. Por outro lado, depois de 1500 muitos livros foram produzidos por tipografias tão primitivas e artesanais como as anteriores, e que por isso também poderiam ser considerados incunábulos. A primeira vez que se usou a palavra incunábulo em relação à tipografia foi em um folheto de Bernhard von Mallinckorodt intitulado De ortu et progressu artis typographicae, publicado em Colônia em 1639. O ano-limite de 1500, para considerar um livro como incunábulo, foi proposto em 1653 pelo jesuíta francês Philippe Labbé em sua Nova bibliotheca librorum manuscriptorum; embora as duas obras mencionadas se referissem à tipografia (que era o que estava em seu início, berço), não ao livro. A palavra foi aplicada ao livro a partir do século XVIII, de modo às vezes impróprio. Entretanto, para manter o tema dentro de limites que permitam estudá-lo, parece pertinente, sob este ponto de vista, aceitar a convenção usual (MARTÍNEZ DE SOUSA : 90-92).

Fonte 1: PINHEIRO, Ana Virgínia. Glossário de codicologia e documentação. Anais da Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, v. 115, p. 170-171, 1998. Disponível em: <http://objdigital.bn.br/acervo_digital/anais/anais_115_1995.pdf>

Fonte 2: http://tesourobibliografico.wordpress.com/topicos-especiais/incunabulo/

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