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O E-book e as mudanças nos direitos de imagem

Por bookess | Postado em Novidades | Em 16-09-2010

Tags:, , , , , , , ,

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Quando os livros passam a ser digitais, perdem a “materialidade”: se transfiguram, de tomos de árvores mortas em coleções etéreas de bytes e bits – infinitamente portáveis, dinâmicos, remixáveis. Ou essa é a ideia, pelo menos.

O que realmente aconteceu foi que ao desnudar o formato em papel revelou-se a verdadeira natureza dos livros: eles são um pacote complicado de direitos autorais. De fato, isso, mais do que a maturidade de séculos do mercado de livros impressos, ou a forma de um robusto codex (vejam!, sem plugs! Sem problemas de compatibilidade!) foi que fez com que a transição de impresso para o eletrônico fosse mais lenta.

Qualquer livro tem certo número de componentes. Tem havido muita discussão sobre o texto, a narrativa, sobre a parte essencial que nos vem à mente quando pensamos em leitura. Mas para isso.. você tem que levar em conta a arte da capa, que envolve design e, frequentemente, uma ou mais imagens. E o design precisa ser licenciado para o uso digital, e também para a distribuição internacional.

E a imagem… nossa! Aqui descobrimos um ninho de ratos que faz nossa cabeça doer só de olhar.

Não há nenhuma “pegadinha” nas imagens. Elas são propriedade intelectual, sujeitas à mesma regulamentação de copyright que qualquer outra (propriedade). Uma biografia padrão, por exemplo, pode conter imagens de dúzias de diferentes fontes, cada uma inclusa no livro de maneira levemente diferente, dependendo de onde veio (fonte familiar, arquivos históricos, agência de fotografia).

Se você for um editor de não-ficção, significa que criar edições de e-books da sua backlist vai envolver não só a briga usual com o autor, mas também passar por centenas de contratos individuais de fotografias e ilustrações. Esses contratos devem ser examinados um por um para ver se a editora tem o direito de publicar cada imagem digitalmente, e de distribuí-la internacionalmente. Se algum desses direitos não está garantido, o editor deve procurar a pessoa que possui os direitos dessa imagem e, assumindo que a pessoa pode ser encontrada, renegociar.

Como editar livros é algo que está aí há tanto tempo, tanto os contratos envolvidos quanto as leis que regem o mercado mudaram com o passar do tempo. Como explica Peter Smith, sócio da Thompson Line LLP, que orienta as editoras quanto aos direitos de imagem: “Se olharmos um contrato de 2010 e um contrato de 1925 da editora X, eles serão iguais? Resposta: certamente que não!”. E isso não é tudo. Formatos digitais podem oferecer uma nova vida sem custos para um livro com muitas imagens que pode ser constantemente reeditado. Mas quanto mais fundo as editoras vão nas suas backlists mais problemas elas podem enfrentar.

“Com o legado dos livros que estão por aí há muito tempo”, diz Smith, “você pode ter outros fatores complicadores – questões sobre se o autor tem direitos, se os direitos retornaram para o autor, se a garantia original ainda é válida”.

E se a editora quiser ir em frente sem imagens? Essa opção, também, pode depender do contrato.

“Se eu, como autor, vendi a você um pacote: o texto e as imagens – talvez você pense em usar ilustrações –; se o acordo diz que você não pode separar a arte ou ilustração do meu texto, você não pode se safar. Ou, às vezes, você tem diretores de arte nas editoras tomando essas decisões e depois recebendo a aprovação do autor, então nesse caso é só trocar as imagens”.

Obviamente, quanto mais significante é o papel das imagens em um livro, mais importante se tornam as questões sobre esses confusos direitos. Para um suntuoso livro de mesa de fotos, o fotógrafo faz um grande investimento em como as imagens são reproduzidas, e existe direitos sobre o formato, a escala da imagem e até mesmo o papel. Esses criadores podem ser muito zelosos quanto à liberação de uma versão digital que não permite controle em como os leitores verão essas imagens.

Até recentemente, as opções digitais para livros de arte e ilustrações eram, de qualquer maneira, limitadas; os e-readers baseados em livros de texto não são “amigos” das imagens, e não havia e-reader que fizesse justiça a uma bela foto colorida ou ilustração. Então veio o iPad e logo muitos tablets que tentam competir com ele. Plataformas de leitura que mostram imagens estão instaladas e funcionando – Zinio foi um dos primeiros em livros de estilo de vida e revistas, Blio (sempre que aparece) terá foco em livros didáticos, e o novo Sideways vai atrás do mercado de arte final.

Para novos livros, as editoras lidam bem com isso. Não só as imagens já são digitalizadas – de fato, a maioria delas já começa digital – como arquivos enormes estão agora on-line, o que abre um novo mundo de navegação e licenciamento.

Precisando da foto de um camelo para sua capa? Getty images tem 605 dessas, disponíveis para compra, livres de copyright.

Pego de surpresa em uma biografia de última hora do Michael Jackson? O Corbis te ajuda – embora você deva saber que imagens de ícones podem lhe custar caro. (E você provavelmente não será capaz de ganhar os direitos mundiais, então qualquer uma das editoras que licenciar sua edição no exterior terá de voltar ao Corbis e pagar um preço exorbitante também. Vocês podem se lamentar juntos em Frankfurt).

Os editores ficaram mais espertos sobre suas licenças também. No mercado de livros de não-ficção é comum que seja pedido aos autores que abram mão de seus direitos sobre qualquer imagem que eles queiram incluir, com custos de licença pagos antecipadamente. Essas permissões usam a linguagem “toda e qualquer edição do livro” e agora pode ter “todos os meios de comunicação/formato/tecnologia atualmente conhecida ou desenvolvida posteriormente” que se tornou padrão nos contratos literários.

Editores de livros ilustrados de estilo de vida – culinária, jardinagem, artesanato, design – têm fotógrafos e ilustradores contratados por trabalho, a fim de manter a máxima flexibilidade e controle sobre o conteúdo que a casa produz.

A visão de futuro deles pode ser útil em um futuro não muito distante. Esses livros temáticos são os candidatos mais óbvios para se demembrarem em peças menores, licenciando um capítulo sobre meias para um site de tricô ou dicas sobre roseiras para um aplicativo de jardinagem urbana. Enquanto históricos títulos de backlists lutam para se livrar da poeira dos contratos em arquivo, os livros digitais já nascem mergulhados em éter, encontrando leitores.

Emily Williams é co-presidente do Subcomitê de Direitos BISG e uma antiga observadora literária que atualmente trabalha como consultora editorial independente.

Fonte: http://www.digitalbookworld.com/

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