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Livros que fazem a cabeça dos presidenciáveis

Por bookess | Postado em Novidades | Em 23-09-2010

Tags:, , , , , , , , , ,

101

O que há em comum entre o russo Fiódor Dostoiévski e o mineiro Guimarães Rosa? A resposta: Dilma Rousseff, José Serra e Plínio de Arruda Sampaio. Os dois escritores são obras de referência para três dos quatro principais candidatos à Presidência da República ouvidos pelo GLOBO. Já Marina Silva fala de leituras mais direcionadas, em sua maioria livros a que foi apresentada na Faculdade de História (Clique aqui para ler os comentários de cada candidato sobre suas leituras).

A coincidência das citações ao autor de “Grande sertão: veredas”, clássico da literatura brasileira quase obrigatório nas leituras de escola, não é fortuita neste momento eleitoral, avalia o cientista político da Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Leonardo Barreto:

— É um livro de grande identidade nacional. Mostra a cara do Brasil, o sertão, cria novas palavras, uma nova linguagem.

Além das leituras fundamentais para.. a formação de cada candidato, a reportagem do GLOBO tentou fazer um apanhado dos livros que estão por trás dos ideários dos partidos políticos. É quase impossível, porém, medir a verdadeira extensão da bibliografia que rege os projetos de campanha. Tampouco é tarefa simples distinguir a linha tênue que separa novas ideias de obras clássicas.

Os próprios coordenadores de campanha têm dificuldade de identificar livros específicos. Garantem que o que está sendo apresentado à população é fruto, em boa medida, da experiência dos integrantes dos partidos políticos e da consulta popular que realizaram nos últimos meses. Além disso, os programas são feitos por especialistas que têm os seus livros de referência ou são eles próprios a obra de referência.

Mesmo assim, especialistas ouvidos pelo GLOBO conseguem enxergar obras importantes que permeiam as campanhas de 2010. Os desenvolvimentistas voltaram à moda e parecem estar presentes em boa parte dos projetos defendidos pelos partidos nestas eleições.

— A importância do mercado e do Estado se alternam no capitalismo ocidental — diz Eduardo Raposo, coordenador de pós-gradução e professor do Departamento de Sociologia e Política da PUC-Rio.

Além da relevância intelectual, livros acadêmicos muitas vezes também adquirem importância política, lembra Eduardo Raposo, da PUC-Rio. Textos que não tiveram receptividade durante o período predominantemente liberal que sucedeu as crises das décadas de 70 e 80 voltam a ter influência política hoje, dois anos após a maior crise econômica global desde 1929. Isso explica o retorno dos desenvolvimentistas após três décadas de monetaristas.
Para Leonardo Barreto, da Universidade de Brasília (UnB), o keynesianismo está muito claro no programa do PT, quando se discute a intervenção do Estado na economia. Tampouco se pode descartar, segundo ele, a influência de pensadores de viés estatista, como o conservador Oliveira Viana, autor de “Evolução do povo brasileiro”. A democracia mais participativa da britânica Carole Pateman, elaborada em livros como “Participation and Democratic Theory”, também tem suas influências sobre o partido, diz.

Um dos coordenadores do programa do PT, Marco Aurélio Garcia, afirma que são mais documentos e experiências de pessoas do que livros propriamente que compuseram o programa. Recentemente, no entanto, ele e Emir Sader lançaram o livro, que já está na terceira edição, “Brasil, entre o passado e o futuro” (Boitempo), com a colaboração de alguns intelectuais — integrantes do governo ou não — com propostas para o país.
Diz-se que este ano a campanha petista recebeu uma pitada extra de esquerda. O sinal estaria no documento “A Grande Transformação”, feito por Garcia e debatido no 4 Congresso Nacional do PT no início do ano, que serviu de minuta para a plataforma de governo da candidata oficial. Ele esboça planos de um pós-Lula mais à esquerda. A começar pelo título retirado do livro do economista austro-húngaro Karl Polanyi (1886-1964), uma obra de referência dos críticos do capitalismo.

O PSDB, segundo Leonardo Barreto, surgiu dentro da literatura social-democrata, com influências de um de seus principais autores, Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Mas, com Serra, a visão tradicional do partido de que o Estado tem um papel regulatório na economia é mais relativa. Parte do que defende o presidenciável estaria em seus próprios livros, diz Barreto.

— O Serra não é o FHC. Ele é da escola cepalina (da Cepal — Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e Caribe) e de uma matriz de pensamento que se aproxima mais do PT quando se imagina o papel do Estado na economia — afirma o professor.

Xico Graziano, um dos coordenadores da campanha do PSDB, fala da rede colaborativa usada para montar as propostas do partido. Ele próprio visitou 13 estados dos país com o apoio dos aliados para verificar as diferentes visões de um mesmo problema. Um autor que lhe ocorreu durante a entrevista ao GLOBO foi o sociólogo Ignacy Sachs, que considera a sustentabilidade um conceito dinâmico, que traz uma visão de desenvolvimento que busca superar o reducionismo e estimula o diálogo entre os conceitos econômicos.

A bibliografia do PV, segundo o especialista Leonardo Barreto, é mais inovadora, tem uma perspectiva pós-moderna dos anos 90. Os integrantes do partido teriam deixado as fileiras marxistas para levantar outros casos. Valorizam a identidade das mulheres, das minorias étnicas, carregam a bandeira das políticas ambientais. Também se aproximam de Carole Pateman, de Habermas (com a questão da democracia deliberativa) e John Rawls (autor de “Uma teoria da justiça”). Tasso Azevedo, um dos coordenadores de conteúdo da campanha, uma das mais organizadas, afirma que o programa surgiu das reuniões dos grupos de colaboradores (90 pessoas). Além disso, foram criadas redes de contato para discutir cada um dos temas com quatro ou cinco especialistas, por assunto, e a sociedade.

Sobre o programa do PSOL, o candidato Plínio de Arruda Sampaio garante que a base são os grandes pensadores brasileiros: Caio Prado Jr., Florestan Fernandes e Celso Furtado. Deste último, Plínio destaca “Brasil: a construção interrompida” (Paz e Terra).

— Estas são pessoas que pensaram a formação brasileira. Eles levantaram as questões fundamentais do país: a exclusão social e a dependência, temas que nos interessam.

Fonte: http://oglobo.globo.com/blogs/prosa/posts/2010/09/18/os-livros-que-fazem-cabeca-dos-candidatos-partidos-325382.asp

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