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A Origem do Papel

Por bookess | Postado em Novidades | Em 29-10-2010

Tags:, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

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Antes da criação do papel, em alguns paises e/ou grupos humanos existiram maneiras curiosas do homem se expressar através da escrita. Na Índia, usavam as folhas de palmeiras, os esquimós utilizavam ossos de baleia e dentes de foca. Na China os livros eram feitos com conchas e cascos de tartaruga e posteriormente em bambu e seda. Estes dois últimos antecederam a descoberta do papel. Entre outros povos era comum o uso da pedra, barro e até mesmo a casca das arvores. As matérias primas mais famosas e próximas do papel foram o papiro e o pergaminho. O primeiro, o papiro, foi inventado pelos egípcios e apesar de sua fragilidade, milhares de documentos em papiro chegaram até nos. O pergaminho era muito mais resistente, pois se tratava de pele de animal, geralmente carneiro, bezerro ou cabra e tinham um custo muito elevado. Os Maias e os Astecas guardavam seus livros de matemática, astronomia e medicina em cascas de árvores, chamadas de “tonalamatl”.

Clique abaixo para continuar lendo.A palavra papel é originária do latim “papyrus”. Nome dado a um vegetal da família “Cepareas” (Cyperua papyrus). A medula dos seus caules era empregada, como já referido, pelos egípcios, há 2 400 anos antes de Cristo. Entretanto foram os chineses os primeiros a fabricarem o papel como o atual. Por volta do século VI a.C. os chineses começaram a produzir um papel de seda branco próprio para pintura e para escrita. O papel produzido após a proclamação da invenção, diferenciava-se desse, unicamente pela matéria prima utilizada.

A maioria dos historiadores concorda em atribuir a T’sai Lun, um oficial da Corte Imperial Chinesa (150 d.C.) a primazia de ter feito papel por meio de polpação de redes de pesca e de trapos e mais tarde usado vegetais. Esta técnica foi mantida em segredo pelos chineses durante quase 600 anos. O uso do papel estendeu-se até os confins do Império Chinês, acompanhando as rotas comerciais das grandes caravanas. Até então a difusão da fabricação do papel foi lenta. Tudo parece indicar que a partir do ano 751 (d.C), quando os árabes, instalados em Samarkanda, grande entreposto das caravanas provinientes da China, aprisionaram 2 chineses que conheciam a arte do papel e a trocaram pela sua liberdade. Dai então foi possível a quebra do monopólio chinês com o início da produção de papel em Bagdá (795 d.C.). A partir daquele momento a difusão do conhecimento sobre a produção do papel artesanal acompanhou a expansão muçulmana ao longo da costa norte da África ate a Península Ibérica.

Os primeiros moinhos papeleiros europeus localizaram-se na Espanha, em Xativa e Toledo (1085). Ao mesmo tempo via Sicilia ou Palestina, o papel foi introduzido na Itália. Depois em 1184 chegou a França e então lentamente outros paises começaram a estabelecer suas manufaturas nacionais. Na América foi introduzido pelos colonizadores e no Brasil em 1809. A sua produção se deu desde então a nível industrial.

No fim do século XVI, os holandeses inventaram uma máquina que permitia desfazer trapos desintegrando-os até o estado de fibra. O uso dessa máquina que passou a chamar-se de “holandesa”, foi se propagando e chegou até os nossos dias sem que os sucessivos aperfeiçoamentos tenham modificado a sua idéia básica.

No fim do século XVIII, a revolução industrial amenizou a constante escassez de matéria prima para a indústria de papel e aumentou a demanda criando um mercado com grande poder de consumo. Em fins do século XVIII e princípios do século XIX a indústria do papel ganhou um grande impulso com a invenção das máquinas de produção contínua e do uso de pastas de madeira.

Há aproximadamente 15, 20 anos é que no Brasil, artistas plásticos vêem resgatando e difundindo as técnicas de produção do papel artesanal.

Fonte: http://www.eno.sk/userfiles/admin_data/image/Egyptian_Papyrus_Drawing.jpg
http://robertosales.br.tripod.com/interest.htm

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